What Is A Solar panel (Photovoltaic)
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar panels. The common single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.
Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light. In addition to producing energy, they can be used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors), detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or measuring light intensity.
The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires three basic attributes:
The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.
The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
In contrast, a solar thermal collector supplies heat by absorbing sunlight, for the purpose of either direct heating or indirect electrical power generation from heat. A “photoelectrolytic cell” (photoelectrochemical cell), on the other hand, refers either to a type of photovoltaic cell (like that developed by Edmond Becquerel and modern dye-sensitized solar cells), or to a device that splits water directly into hydrogen and oxygen using only solar illumination.
Solar panels get energy from the sun for people to use. There are two types of solar panels, those that collect heat (thermal), and those that produce electricity (photovoltaic). Heat from solar panels is often used for space heating and for hot water.
Solar panels collect renewable energy. In the 20th century some used the heat of the sun to make steam for a steam engine to turn a generator. Nowadays producing electricity from the sun’s light is cheaper. This is a solid state way of producing electricity, meaning that it has no moving parts.
Home solar panels are often mounted on rooftops. Commercial or industrial installations are often on trackers mounted on the ground. The trackers point the panel towards the sun as the sun moves across the sky. Photovoltaic panels are also commonly used in outer space, where they are one of the few power sources available.